How the Fusor works

September 10, 2013 at 8:28 pm

A Fusor works by making deuterium atoms fly towards each other in the middle of a stainless steel chamber.   Deuterium  is a gas that is very like hydrogen,  except that it has a neutron, I will explain this later.  A hollow, spherical  grid is placed in the centre of the chamber.   This grid is welded to the negative lead of a power supply, which makes the grid negative.   The stainless steel chamber itself is connected to the positive lead of the same power supply, which in turn makes the chamber wall positive.

 

Two different types of vacuum pumps are connected  to one of the chambers’ ports or openings.   These are used to create a vacuum inside the chamber.  A vacuum is where there is very little air or gases inside a certain area – the more air that is pumped out, the higher the vacuum.   The vacuum makes it easier for the deuterium  atoms to move around when they are pumped into the steel chamber.

 

A deuterium  atom is made of one proton, one neutron and one electron, whereas hydrogen  is just a proton and an electron.   Because it only has an extra neutron, this makes deuterium  an isotope of hydrogen.   Atoms are extremely  small, though they are all of different sizes, they are still tiny.  There is around 7.5 trillion atoms of carbon in a full stop of a sharp pencil. Protons and neutrons are nearly the same size as each other, but an electron is around three times the size of either. However a proton’s weight is that of  nearly 2,000 electrons.

 

In a deuterium  atom the neutron and proton are basically stuck together in the middle of it (the nucleus),  while the electron flies around the nucleus in a circle.  The electron is negative and the proton is positive, while the neutron is neutral (not positive or negative).  This makes the nucleus positive – like the electron is negative.  As there is the same amount of protons and electrons in the atom this makes the atom neutral i.e. If an electron is equal to -1, a proton is equal to +1 and a neutron is equal to 0, this is the same as +1-1= 0 making the atom neutral.

 

When the deuterium  is pumped into the chamber,  the electron in the deuterium atom flies off in a random direction towards the chamber wall.  This is because the electron is negative and the chamber wall is positive so they attract each other.  The nucleus ( proton+neutron) then flies toward the negative grid in the middle of the chamber,  because the nucleus is positive and the grid is negative.

 

The First step in deuterium - deuterium fusion

The First step in deuterium – deuterium fusion

The 2nd of the main steps in deuterium - deuterium fusion

The 2nd of the main steps in deuterium – deuterium fusion

As there are millions of individual nuclei flying towards the negative grid in the middle of the chamber collisions  of the nuclei begin to take place.  When two nuclei hit each other and fuse, this is fusion. There are two different main reactions that can take place in deuterium – deuterium fusion.

 

– 50% of the time the two protons (one from each nucleus) and one of the neutrons (from one nucleus) fuse together and the other neutron (from the other nucleus) flies away in a random direction through the chamber ’s wall.  When a neutron comes away from a reaction like this, it is called fast neutron or ionizing radiation.

 

The 1st possible reaction in deuterium - deuterium fusion

The 1st possible reaction in deuterium – deuterium fusion

-The other 50% of the time two of the neutrons and one of the protons fuse together and the remaining proton flies in a random direction – similar to the single neutron in the previous reaction – and eventually combines with a spare electron in the chamber forming hydrogen.

The 2nd possible reaction in deuterium - deuterium fusion

The 2nd possible reaction in deuterium – deuterium fusion

 

-There is also a less than 1 in 10,000 chance that the two deuterium atoms will fuse into a helium atom, composed of two neutrons and two protons, this reaction also emits a gamma ray photon. I have elected not to include a diagram showing this reaction as it is extremely rare.

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